The focus of this module is the challenging planting environment found in both urban and rural landscapes. Across the world significant numbers of people live and work within urban areas and plants can bring significant benefits to these environments. Plants can help to cool the urban heat island, reduce pollution and increase biodiversity and human well-being but the impact upon the plants themselves can be immense. In more rural areas plants also play an important role within the landscape in terms of hedgerows, woodlands, field boundaries and motorway embankments; there are different challenges here which require specific planting strategies. The module will examine the benefits of landscape planting as well as how the character and design of urban and rural environments influences plant management. The technical issues underlying plant selection, establishment and management will be a key element of the module. Students will use case study sites to investigate these issues in greater depth.