Veterinary Physiotherapists must be able to assess an animal for evidence of pain (acute and chronic) and the resulting physical and psychological compensatory mechanisms prior to applying physical therapy. These may display as gait alterations, adapted behavior which may include temperament and habit changes. There may also be changes in eating behavior. Once the underlying issues have been established and after veterinary consultation, the therapist must be able to demonstrate skill in number of modalities. This module takes the student through important assessment strategies and manual therapies such as range of motion, massage, stretching and graded mobilisations, trigger point therapy and myofascial release. Evidence of competence must also be demonstrated in a range of electrotherapies to maximise functional recovery as part of a treatment plan. Competence in the mechanisms of action and settings of a variety of modalities such as laser, ultrasound, pulsed magnetic field therapy, H wave therapy, Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) and Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) are important to enhance recovery.