Veterinary Physiotherapists must be able to assess an animal for evidence of pain (acute and chronic) and the resulting physical and psychological compensatory mechanisms prior to applying physical therapy. Once the underlying issues have been established and after veterinary consultation, the therapist must be able to demonstrate skill in number of modalities. This module takes the student through important manual therapies such as massage, stretching, trigger point therapy and myofascial release. Evidence of competence must also be demonstrated in a range of electrotherapies to maximize functional recovery as part of a treatment plan. Competence in the mechanisms of action and settings of a variety of modalities such as laser, ultrasound, pulsed magnetic field therapy, H wave therapy, Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) and Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) are important to enhance recovery.