Agroforestry has been part of historical food production in many parts of the world and there is good evidence for environmental amelioration in these particular food production landscapes when contrasted with modern conventional agricultural lands. Recently, agroforestry has attracted international recognition as a potential contributor to food security while also providing vital ecosystem services through environmentally regenerative practices. The Module will introduce the students to the concept and different types of agroforestry, and how the interaction between trees, livestock and crops influences both productivity and ecosystem function. Long term environmental and economic gains will be reviewed in the wider context of ‘circular economics’, and also contrasted with conventional agro-economic models. Current framework of ecosystem services and payment for public services is an important consideration in agro-forestry as part of a wider strategy for socio-environmental sustainability.