This module introduces fundamental concepts in equine behaviour and welfare, exploring the role of the horse throughout evolution to the impact of modern management on welfare. The module begins by looking at the evolution and classification of the horse, its natural behaviour and needs, then moves on to look at the horse’s role in human society and the effects of domestication and training on behavioural responses. It also looks at the range of behavioural issues seen in industry and considers the factors that need to be appraised when determining the causes of these problems. The module then moves on to focus on the welfare considerations of the horse, from legislation and ethics to the horse crisis, the role of welfare organisations and rescue centres and how we can use behaviour as a measure of good and poor welfare in the horse. We then appraise the welfare of horses in a variety of circumstances, both nationally and internationally from the working equid to the performance horse.